Section 115 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 defines the principle of estoppel. It states that when a person makes false representation, which causes another person to believe a thing to be true and that person alters his position, then neither he nor his representatives will be allowed to say that the representation was false in a subsequent proceeding. The representation can be either by words or conduct.
- R.S. Maddanappa v. Chandramma (AIR 1965 SC 1812)
- T.K. Ghosh Academy v. T.C. Palit (AIR 1947 SC 1495)