A delegate cannot further delegate.
This Latin maxim means that a person to whom a power is delegated cannot further delegate that power. That person cannot sub-delegate that power to someone else. No sub-delegation can be done in a contract of principle-agent without the knowledge and consent of the principle. This principle is often used in administrative or constitutional law.
If a person has delegated ‘A’ to execute a will after his death, therefore, ‘A’ cannot further delegate this power to another person. If he does so, he will be delegating the power or authority, which was delegated to him.
A Defendant's Mental State
This maxim refers to the state of mind of the defendant who is proved to be having ulterior motives when having committed a crime. Mens réa is defined in a statute which establishes the crime or sets a precedent from time to time. The teaching of Mens rea was applied in India by courts, now that mens rea is the most important component of an offence, as firmly settled by law. In addition, the offenses resulting from the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, Drug Acts and Weights and Measurements Act are prohibited without any evidence of guilt and the criminal shall not be liable for the offense without the proof of any guilty knowledge or intention, as it also decided by the Hon’ble Supreme Court in the case of Sarjoo Prasad v/s State of U.P
Ignorance of law is no excuse.
It is a Latin maxim, which means ignorance of fact can be excused but the ignorance of law cannot be excused. Every person should know the laws of the country where he lives. He cannot plead ignorance of it. Even the foreigner has to abide with the laws of the land as long as he happens to be in that country. This maxim is often used in Criminal Law.
Not before a judge.
This legal maxim is of latin origin meaning a legal proceeding outside the authority of the judge, that is, without a judge, with no proper presence, or without any legal jurisdiction. Any order or sentence passed by a court or tribunal, which does not possess the authority to try an accused of that particular offence, shall be in violation of the law of the land, not enforceable, and it would be termed as Coram non judice.