The act itself does not constitute guilt unless done with a guilty mind.
It is a Latin maxim, which means that for any act to be illegal in nature it must be done with a guilty mind. Hence, act done without any intention cannot be punished. Not only is the act of the accused important but also the intention of the accused to do the specific act is equally important to prove the guilt of the accused. Hence, it can be said that mere breach of law is not sufficient to constitute a crime.
‘B’ attacks ‘A’ with an intention to cause grievous hurt or injury then it is a crime because it included a guilty mind. But when ‘A’ was attacked, it caused injury to ‘B’ in private defence then it is an unintentional act and hence, it cannot be considered as a crime.
Not before a judge.
This legal maxim is of latin origin meaning a legal proceeding outside the authority of the judge, that is, without a judge, with no proper presence, or without any legal jurisdiction. Any order or sentence passed by a court or tribunal, which does not possess the authority to try an accused of that particular offence, shall be in violation of the law of the land, not enforceable, and it would be termed as Coram non judice.
Suppression of truth.
The legal maxim is of latin origin meaning suppression of truth is an offence. It means knowingly suppressing the truth, when it should have been disclosed in the first place, rightfully makes the contract invalid. Concealment of truth vitiates a contract. Parties are required to present everything with fairness to maintain a fair deal. Concealment of facts intentionally leads to false beliefs. Suppressio Veri is a ground to rescind an agreement or to avoid carrying it to execution.
Not by violence, stealth or entreaty
Nec, Vi, Nec Clam, Nec Precario is a Latin legal maxim which means that, “not by violence, stealth or entreaty”. In other words it means that, ‘not by force, nor stealth, nor the license of the owner’. It is often referred in the context of adverse possession and other land law issues.