Cambridge online dictionary defines the word as "the fact of officially being found to be guilty of a specific crime, or the act of officially finding someone guilty". Oxford online dictionary also defines it on an equivalent line: a proper declaration by the decision of a jury or the choice of a judge during a court of law that somebody is guilty of a criminal offence. For a student of law, the conviction is "the outcome of a prosecution which concludes during a judgment that the defendant is guilty of the crime charged." This is often the juncture of a criminal proceeding during which the question of guilt is ascertained. The term conviction, in law, refers to the ultimate judgment on a verdict of guilty. This means if a court of law finds an individual guilty of committing a criminal offence, it's called the conviction of the accused individual. A convicted person is awarded punishment for the crime as per the legal code. In law, a conviction is the verdict that sometimes results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of a criminal offence. Another type of conviction is acquittal (that is, "not guilty"). In Scotland and within the Netherlands, there also can be a verdict of "not proven", which counts as an acquittal. There also are cases during which the court orders that a defendant not be convicted, despite being found guilty; in England, Wales, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand the mechanism for this is often a discharge. For several reasons, the criminal justice system isn't perfect: sometimes guilty defendants are acquitted, while innocent people are convicted. Appeal mechanisms and post-conviction relief procedures may mitigate the consequences of a conviction to some extent. A mistake which ends up within the conviction of an innocent person is understood as a miscarriage of justice.
After a defendant is convicted, the court determines the acceptable sentence as a punishment. Furthermore, the conviction may cause results beyond the terms of the sentence itself. Such ramifications are referred to as the collateral consequences of criminal charges. A minor conviction may be a warning conviction, and it doesn't affect the defendant but does function a warning. A history of convictions are called antecedents, known colloquially as "previous" within the UK, and "priors" within us and Australia. The history of convictions also shows that a minor law conviction is often prosecuted as an individual's punishment.
Executive privilege is the right of the president of the United States and other members of the executive branch to maintain confidential communications.
A bill of costs is a statement of the number of costs incurred while defending or bringing a lawsuit.