Bye laws are those laws which are made by an organization or community for their proper working. This power of making their own laws for survival is given by some higher authority. e.g. the state governments are allowed to decide their bye-laws for their proper functioning or say municipal cooperation are allowed to make bye-laws for smooth functioning of the department. These bye-laws are also made in companies to control the actions of their members. These laws once made are obligatory to get approval from all its prospective members.
Executive privilege is the right of the president of the United States and other members of the executive branch to maintain confidential communications.
Proximate cause is an event or an activity that is nearly related to an injury that the courts assume to be the cause of that particular injury.