A corporation is a body--it is a legal person in the eyes of the law. It can bring lawsuits, can buy and sell property, contract, be taxed, and even commit crimes.
The term corporation comes from the Latin corpus, which means body. A corporation is a body--it is a legal person in the eyes of the law. It can bring lawsuits, can buy and sell property, contract, be taxed, and even commit crimes. It's the most notable feature: a corporation protects its owners from personal liability for corporate debts and obligations--within limits. The corporation is considered an artificially created legal entity that exists separate and apart from those individuals who created it and carried on its operations.
Incorporating gives you the benefit of limiting your liability and making your business easier to transfer to others. Limiting your assets will protect your home and other belongings from being seized as collateral. Depending on the type of company you've started and your long-term goals for it, incorporating might be right for you, or it may be superfluous. Being incorporated enables you to:
It is true that operating as a corporation has its share of drawbacks in certain situations. For example, as a business owner, you would be responsible for additional record keeping requirements and administrative details. More important, in some cases, operating as a corporation can create an additional tax burden. This is the last thing a business owner needs, especially in the early stages of operation. Remember, aside from tax reasons, the most common motivation for incurring the cost of setting up a corporation is the recognition that the shareholder is not legally liable for the actions of the corporation. This is because the corporation has its separate existence wholly apart from those who run it.
Unlike proprietorship and partnership, the life of the corporation is not dependent upon the life of an individual or individuals. It can continue indefinitely until it achieves its objective, merges with another business or announces bankruptcy.
In the corporations, all of the individual owner's rights and privileges are represented by the shares of stock they hold. So, it is very easy to divest this ownership by simply parting with the shares. But the process of divesting one of his own can be cumbersome and costly in proprietorship and partnership.
It is usually much easier to attract new investors into a corporate entity because of limited liability and easy share transfer mechanism.
The first step in incorporating a business in India is, choose what kind of business entity you want to register.
2. Partnership Firm
3. Limited Liability Partnership
Compared to the other forms of business setups, LLPs are more advantageous than the rest of the above. One of the biggest advantages is, it is less complex than running a company, gives most benefits of companies, has a more formal existence like a company and protects the personal assets of partners from the business liabilities.
The Companies Act, 2013 governs the procedures for incorporating a company in India. Incorporating a company is a preferred form of business because it has several advantages such as limited liability and perpetual succession, to name a few. Many people interchangeably use the terms "company", "business", "firm" etc. But when it comes to incorporating, each of these is considered different entities. It is a common misunderstanding that any business can be called a Company. A business can be called a Company in India only if it is incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.
One can incorporate a company either as a public limited or private limited. Though both the processes are almost identical, incorporating a public company requires a bit more formality. The difference between the two categories of companies is that private limited companies can commence business activities immediately after receiving the Certificate of Incorporation. However, a public company has to undertake the Capital Subscription to raise capital from the public (Initial Public Offering). A public company has to issue a prospectus inviting the public to purchase the company's shares and must also meet the minimum requirements for the subscription before it can receive the Certificate of Commencement of Business.
The first step in the incorporation of a company is promotion. Promoters are those persons who initially conceive the idea of setting up a company. They have a vital role to play since they have to weigh the idea and have to take the necessary steps to realize the idea and to give a practical connotation to the business plan – Such as feasibility of the business idea, setting up the business facility and company registration.
In the next step, the following documents are needed.
When the above-mentioned documents are ready, the promoters submit the documents along with the application for incorporation with the Registrar of Companies (ROC) in the State where the registered office of the company would be situated. After all, the documents are examined by the ROC, and it is checked that all the statutory requirements for the formation of the company have been met, once the Registrar is satisfied with the compliance of all the formalities, the Certificate of Incorporation will be issued, signifying the birth of the company. A CIN (Corporate Identity Number) will be allotted to the company.
The Certificate of Incorporation is the legal proof and evidence of the birth of the company. The company can validate contracts and agreements to carry forward its business activities. Once the Certificate of Incorporation is received, a private limited company can start its business. Still, a public limited company has to go through the process of capital raising before commencing business.
The third stage requires a public company to raise funds from the public for the capital of the company. A public company raises capital funds by issuing shares and debentures of the company to the public. For raising capital, the following steps need to be taken.
A private limited company can commence business after getting the Corporate Identification Number. Still, a public company to commence its business must procure a Certificate for Commencement of Business. For that end, a public company needs to apply to the Roc with the following documents.
Suppose the Registrar of Companies is satisfied that all the documents are genuine. In that case, he will issue the Certificate for Commencement of Business, and the public company can start its business activities.
To sum up things, it can be said that though the corporation of business/company is a lengthy and complex procedure, it is always a better option to incorporate a business. Incorporation has its share of disadvantages also like periodic meetings of directors, filing of documents after a certain time. Still, the advantages are far more noteworthy. That is why in today's world, 80% of the startups are incorporating themselves so that their hard work for years does not get dissolved for some rational reasons.
Advocate Jeevesh Mehta in his interview talks that internships and taking part in moot court competition helps the person to gain confidence about representing themselves and even their client in the court in future. He stated that moot court competitions help the person to represent their client in the best effective manner in the court, having all possible solutions to make the client win the case. The mannerism and conduct in court are also very important and plays a significant role standing before the Judge. He also said that a person knowing various field could reach heights compared to a person who is having less experience and knowledge about multiple aspects of the law.
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial body under India's constitution. It is the highest constitutional court, which has authority over judicial review as well as has the power to review its judgments under Article 137.