People began moving in significant numbers for greater economic, political and social prosperity as globalisation took place. India is a nation of mixed races and languages, offering refugees from other nations several attractions. For the intent of long-term resettlement, immigration essentially refers to the transfer of people from one country to another.
However, the primary obstacle for refugees is to gain the host country's citizenship and take advantage of the basic rights of the land to which they have moved. Typically, these problems are resolved by explicitly designed immigration laws and regulations that carry out the procedure and requirements for gaining citizenship. But as far as the Indian Subcontinent is concerned, the rules of the Constitution of India control the immigration laws.
In Part-II of the Constitution, Articles 5 to 11 deal with citizenship and describe a citizen as a person with an Indian domicile or someone with an Indian family heritage. Article 10 deals with the continuity of the rights of aliens as Indian nationals, subject to any legislation introduced by the legislature after that.
The Indian Constitution acknowledges only country-wide single citizenship and does not accept dual citizenship. It also declares that a foreign citizen may obtain Indian citizenship through the process of Naturalization (ordinarily living in India for 14 years) and registration of foreigners with the FRRO (Foreigners Geographical Registration Officer) or FRO (Foreigners Registration Officer). As compared to jus soli (citizenship by birth), Indian law follows jus sanguinis (citizenship by blood).
Some actions have been introduced to regularise the procedure of immigrants taking advantage of citizenship, such as:
For their lawful entry into the Indian borders, all international visitors need a visa. However, this does not apply to Nepalese and Bhutanese people. The visas allow for a fixed duration of stay within the country of no longer than 180 days (6 months). If, however, a visa is required for an extended duration (more than 180 days) of stay, the applicant must register with the FRRO or FRO.
Different forms of visas are issued by the Indian government, such as business visas, job visas, internal visas, transit visas, student visas, film visas, etc., any of which can be used as a conventional or e-visa visa. Apart from the above-mentioned valid visas known as the Protected Area Permit (PAP), which permits tourists to access the restricted zones, there are also restricted areas within India that require a special entry permit. This permit must be included as an alternative to the required regular visa.
The government has made many important changes to the Indian Immigration Law of India, such as:
Strict liability may be a theory that imposes an obligation for damages or injuries, notwithstanding the one that was found strictly liable failed to act with fault or negligence.
Covid-19, the pandemic, has caused much more than the loss of lives, globally. It has dented and crippled the economy, generated widespread unemployment, challenged the healthcare system, instituted lockdowns in stagnating day-to-day lives,