Nov 19, 2020

The Central Human Rights Commission (NHRC) is a statutory body established under the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 on 12th October 1993, and every year, 12th October is observed as the Foundation Day.

NHRC was established to spread awareness amongst the people about basic human rights. It provides basic human rights to every citizen of the country.

The Headquarters of NHRC is located in New Delhi with its Chairman Mr Justice H.L. Dattu, and with the permission of the Central Government can establish offices in other places in India.


The Commission consists of eight members (four full-time and four deemed) and a Chairperson who has been a former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India. The other members of the Commission shall be a sitting or retired Judge of the Supreme Court, a serving or retired Chief Justice of the High Court, two eminent people having knowledge and practical experience in the area of human rights, and the Chairpersons of the National Commission for Minorities, the Scheduled Castes, and Scheduled Tribes and Women.


  • NHRC is aggressively dedicated to investigating the matters where human rights are violated by the Government or any public servant.
  • They undertake and promote research in the field of human rights.
  • NHRC can intervene in any court proceeding which involves an allegation of violation of human rights with the permission of the court.
  • It shall spread human rights literacy amongst various sections of the society and promote awareness of the safeguards available for the protection of the rights through the medium of seminars, media, publications, etc.
  • It should review the safeguards which are provided by or are under the Constitution of India or any law for the time being in force for the protection of human rights.
  • It shall encourage the efforts put up by the non-governmental organizations and institutions working for the welfare of human rights.


The Commission took cognizance of various cases. Some of them are listed below:

  • When 12 Adivasis were killed while protesting in Kalinganagar, Orissa, the NHRC took cognizance and called for a report of the same from the State DGP.
  • NHRC actively intervened in the case of the abomination against the Dalits.
  • NHRC sees manual scavengers as humans only and therefore does everything possible for their rehabilitation. It interferes in the cases related to the situations of manual scavengers.
  • When the issue of deficiency of health care arose in the area of South Orissa amongst the Adivasi community, NHRC took cognizance of the same and recommended various improvisations in the rural area.  
  • Taking up suo moto cognizance of instances of fake encounters.
  • Impact of the Godhra incident which happened in the state of Gujarat led the Commission to file a Special Leave Petition (SLP) in the Supreme Court of India and ensured that accused persons were booked under various sections for the act they committed.
  • Violence broke out in Nandigram, a village in the state of West Bengal in 2007 to which the NHRC took cognizance and directed the Investigating Officers to execute spot investigation.
  • When excessive force was used on protestors in the Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh, NHRC took cognizance of the same, and now, the matter has been closed.

The Central/National Human Right Commission has till date, disposed of more than 17 lakh cases, victims of human rights violation were paid a total of more than Rs 1 billion, 750 spot inquiries were carried out by the Commission for the violation of human rights, and over 200 conferences were held to spread the awareness of human rights across the country.


The official website of the Central/National Human Rights Commission is https://nhrc.nic.in/.